Clear policies along with a centralized, coordinated and caring approach are essential to effectively supporting students in distress; and to ensuring the safety of the student and the campus at large. The tools and resources in this section were designed to help campuses develop a coordinated and comprehensive approach for identifying and supporting students who are displaying concerning, disruptive and/or distressed behaviour because of a mental health problem.  In line with best practices and a model policy, particular emphasis is placed on how to effectively support students in distress in a fair, non-discriminatory and non-punitive way.

Guiding framework and model policy for this section

Currently, there is no consensus on how campuses should respond when students are in crisis, particularly if they manifest self-injurious thoughts or behavior or appear to pose a potential threat to others. The Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law in Washington, DC is the first and only body that has created a model policy to date. Although the Bazelon Centre’s policies are American-based, many of their key recommendations are relevant to Ontario’s postsecondary schools as well. The Bazelon’s policy entitled Supporting Students: A Model Policy for Colleges and Universities was developed after consultation with mental health experts, higher education administrators, counselors and students throughout the United States. This policy provides a balanced approach with effective supports to students in distress while also ensuring the safety of the student and the campus at large. Although the policy acknowledges this may be challenging and complex, it recommends that campuses adopt a comprehensive plan that responds to students in distress in non-punitive ways. Campuses must carefully consider their responses from both a mental health lens and legal lens. For example, punitive actions such as requiring students to involuntarily leave campus, evicting them from college/university housing and/or charging them with disciplinary violations for suicidal gestures can discourage students—not just the penalized student but all others—from seeking help. These measures can isolate students from social and professional supports— friends and understanding counselors and teachers—at a time of crisis, increasing the risk of harm. Moreover, campuses can be liable, as these responses to students with mental health problems/disabilities may violate their human rights according to the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) and the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario (HRTO). The following processes and policies will help colleges and universities navigate these complex issues and develop a nondiscriminatory approach to a student who is in crisis because of a mental health problem.


Reference
Bazelon Centre for Mental Health Law (2007). Supporting Students: A model policy for colleges and universities. Accessed from www.bazelon.org/Where-We-Stand/Community-Integration/Campus-Mental-Health.aspx.

Relevant Campus Policies 

Policy Approaches to Postsecondary Student Mental Health: A scan of current practice

Supporting Students: A model policy for colleges and universities

New policy on preventing discrimination based on mental health disabilities and addictions

Student of Concern Protocols

Case Management Toolkit – Campus Mental Health Partnerships (Georgian & Centennial Colleges)

An Integrated Approach to Responding to Students in Distress (Carleton University)

Suicide Risk Assessment Protocols

Suicide Risk Assessment Process, Guidelines & Forms (Fanshawe College)

How to Assist a Distressed Student

How to Assist a Student in Difficulty: Making a good referral (McMaster University)

A Guide to Supporting Students in Distress (OCAD University)

General

Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) – Early Intervention

Mental Health Commission – Children and Youth

Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA) – Metro Division, Youth Zone

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) – Promoting Mental Health, Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice (A Report for the World Health Organization)

Schizophrenia Bulletin – Ethnic Diversity and Pathways to Care for a First Episode of Psychosis in Ontario

CBC article – Mental illness best detected early in schools

Children’s Mental Health Ontario – Mental Health Disorders in Children and Youth

The California School Psychologist 2009, Vol. 14 – Early Identification of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Youth: Universal screening versus Teacher-Referral Identification

Katie Eklund, Tyler L. Renshaw, Erin Dowdy, Shane R. Jimerson, Shelley R. Hart, Camille N. Jones, and James Earhart; Early Identification of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Youth: Universal screening versus Teacher-Referral Identification; University of California, Santa Barbara